Here in this article, i will give you an idea of very basic syntax of PHP and very important to make your PHP foundation strong.

Escaping to PHP

The PHP parsing engine needs a way to differentiate PHP code from other elements in the page. The mechanism for doing so is known as ‘escaping to PHP’. There are four ways to do this −

Canonical PHP tags

The most universally effective PHP tag style is −

<?php…?>

If you use this style, you can be positive that your tags will always be correctly interpreted.

Short-open (SGML-style) tags

Short or short-open tags look like this

<?…?>

Short tags are, as one might expect, the shortest option You must do one of two things to enable PHP to recognize the tags −

  • Choose the –enable-short-tags configuration option when you’re building PHP.
  • Set the short_open_tag setting in your php.ini file to on. This option must be disabled to parse XML with PHP because the same syntax is used for XML tags.

ASP-style tags

ASP-style tags mimic the tags used by Active Server Pages to delineate code blocks. ASP-style tags look like this −

<%…%>

To use ASP-style tags, you will need to set the configuration option in your php.ini file.

HTML script tags

HTML script tags look like this −

<script language=”PHP”>…</script>

Commenting PHP Code

A comment is the portion of a program that exists only for the human reader and stripped out before displaying the programs result. There are two commenting formats in PHP −

Single-line comments − They are generally used for short explanations or notes relevant to the local code. Here are the examples of single line comments.

<?

# This is a comment, and

# This is the second line of the comment

// This is a comment too. Each style comments only

print “An example with single line comments”;

?>

Multi-lines printing − Here are the examples to print multiple lines in a single print statement −

<?

# First Example

print <<<END

This uses the “here document” syntax to output

multiple lines with $variable interpolation. Note

that the here document terminator must appear on a

line with just a semicolon no extra whitespace!

END;

# Second Example

print “This spans

multiple lines. The newlines will be

output as well”;

?>

Multi-lines comments − They are generally used to provide pseudocode algorithms and more detailed explanations when necessary. The multiline style of commenting is the same as in C. Here are the example of multi lines comments.

<?

/* This is a comment with multiline

Author : Mohammad Mohtashim

Purpose: Multiline Comments Demo

Subject: PHP

*/

print “An example with multi line comments”;

?>

PHP is whitespace insensitive

Whitespace is the stuff you type that is typically invisible on the screen, including spaces, tabs, and carriage returns (end-of-line characters).

PHP whitespace insensitive means that it almost never matters how many whitespace characters you have in a row.one whitespace character is the same as many such characters.

For example, each of the following PHP statements that assigns the sum of 2 + 2 to the variable $four is equivalent −

$four = 2 + 2; // single spaces

$four <tab>=<tab2<tab>+<tab>2 ; // spaces and tabs

$four =

2+

2; // multiple lines

PHP is case sensitive

Yeah it is true that PHP is a case sensitive language. Try out following example −

PHP tag

PHP tag

This will produce the following result −

Variable capital is 67

Variable CaPiTaL is

Statements are expressions terminated by semicolons

A statement in PHP is any expression that is followed by a semicolon (;).Any sequence of valid PHP statements that is enclosed by the PHP tags is a valid PHP program. Here is a typical statement in PHP, which in this case assigns a string of characters to a variable called $greeting −

$greeting = “Welcome to PHP!”;

Expressions are combinations of tokens

The smallest building blocks of PHP are the indivisible tokens, such as numbers (3.14159), strings (.two.), variables ($two), constants (TRUE), and the special words that make up the syntax of PHP itself like if, else, while, for and so forth

Braces make blocks

Although statements cannot be combined like expressions, you can always put a sequence of statements anywhere a statement can go by enclosing them in a set of curly braces.

Here both statements are equivalent −

if (3 == 2 + 1)

print(“Good – I haven’t totally lost my mind.<br>”);

if (3 == 2 + 1) {

print(“Good – I haven’t totally”);

print(“lost my mind.<br>”);

}

Running PHP Script from Command Prompt

Yes you can run your PHP script on your command prompt. Assuming you have following content in test.php file

<?php

echo “Hello PHP!!!!!”;

?>

Now run this script as command prompt as follows −

$ php test.php

It will produce the following result −

Hello PHP!!!!!

Hope now you have basic knowledge of PHP Syntax.

PHP Variable Types

  • The main way to store information in the middle of a PHP program is by using a variable.
  • Here are the most important things to know about variables in PHP.
  • All variables in PHP are denoted with a leading dollar sign ($).
  • The value of a variable is the value of its most recent assignVariables are assigned with the = operator, with the variable on the left-hand side and the expression to be evaluated on the right.
  • Variables can, but do not need, to be declared before assignment.
  • Variables in PHP do not have intrinsic types – a variable does not know in advance whether it will be used to store a number or a string of characters.
  • Variables used before they are assigned have default values.
  • PHP does a good job of automatically converting types from one to another when necessary.
  • PHP variables are Perl-like.

PHP has a total of eight data types which we use to construct our variables −

  • Integers − are whole numbers, without a decimal point, like 4195.
  • Doubles − are floating-point numbers, like 3.14159 or 49.1.
  • Booleans − have only two possible values either true or false.
  • NULL − is a special type that only has one value: NULL.
  • Strings − are sequences of characters, like ‘PHP supports string operations.’
  • Arrays − are named and indexed collections of other values.
  • Objects − are instances of programmer-defined classes, which can package up both other kinds of values and functions that are specific to the class.
  • Resources − are special variables that hold references to resources external to PHP (such as database connections).

The first five are simple types, and the next two (arrays and objects) are compound – the compound types can package up other arbitrary values of arbitrary type, whereas the simple types cannot.

We will explain only simple data type in this chapters. Array and Objects will be explained separately.

Integers

They are whole numbers, without a decimal point, like 4195. They are the simplest type .they correspond to simple whole numbers, both positive and negative. Integers can be assigned to variables, or they can be used in expressions, like so −

$int_var = 12345;

$another_int = -12345 + 12345;

Integer can be in decimal (base 10), octal (base 8), and hexadecimal (base 16) format. Decimal format is the default, octal integers are specified with a leading 0, and hexadecimals have a leading 0x.

For most common platforms, the largest integer is (2**31 . 1) (or 2,147,483,647), and the smallest (most negative) integer is . (2**31 . 1) (or .2,147,483,647).

Doubles

They like 3.14159 or 49.1. By default, doubles print with the minimum number of decimal places needed. For example, the code

PHP syntax Script

It produces the following browser output −

2.28888 + 2.21112 = 4.5

Boolean

They have only two possible values either true or false. PHP provides a couple of constants especially for use as Booleans: TRUE and FALSE, which can be used like so −

if (TRUE)

print(“This will always print<br>”);

else

print(“This will never print<br>”);

Interpreting other types as Booleans

Here are the rules for determine the “truth” of any value not already of the Boolean type −

  • If the value is a number, it is false if exactly equal to zero and true otherwise.
  • If the value is a string, it is false if the string is empty (has zero characters) or is the string “0”, and is true otherwise.
  • Values of type NULL are always false.
  • If the value is an array, it is false if it contains no other values, and it is true otherwise. For an object, containing a value means having a member variable that has been assigned a value.
  • Valid resources are true (although some functions that return resources when they are successful will return FALSE when unsuccessful)
  • Don’t use double as Booleans.

Each of the following variables has the truth value embedded in its name when it is used in a Boolean context.

$true_num = 3 + 0.14159;

$true_str = “Tried and true”

$true_array[49] = “An array element”;

$false_array = array();

$false_null = NULL;

$false_num = 999 – 999;

$false_str = “”;

NULL

NULL is a special type that only has one value: NULL. To give a variable the NULL value, simply assign it like this −

$my_var = NULL;

The special constant NULL is capitalized by convention, but actually it is case insensitive; you could just as well have typed −

$my_var = null;

A variable that has been assigned NULL has the following properties −

  • It evaluates to FALSE in a Boolean context.
  • It returns FALSE when tested with IsSet() function.

Strings

They are sequences of characters, like “PHP supports string operations”. Following are valid examples of string

$string_1 = “This is a string in double quotes”;

$string_2 = “This is a somewhat longer, singly quoted string”;

$string_39 = “This string has thirty-nine characters”;This will produce following result −

My $variable will not print!\n

My name will print

There are no artificial limits on string length – within the bounds of available memory, you ought to be able to make arbitrarily long strings.

Strings that are delimited by double quotes (as in “this”) are preprocessed in both the following two ways by PHP −

· Certain character sequences beginning with backslash (\) are replaced with special characters

· Variable names (starting with $) are replaced with string representations of their values.

The escape-sequence replacements are −

\n is replaced by the newline character

\r is replaced by the carriage-return character

\t is replaced by the tab character

\$ is replaced by the dollar sign itself ($)

\” is replaced by a single double-quote (“)

\\ is replaced by a single backslash (\)

Here Document

You can assign multiple lines to a single string variable using here document −

$string_0 = “”; // a string with zero characters

Singly quoted strings are treated almost literally, whereas doubly quoted strings replace variables with their values as well as specially interpreting certain character sequences.

PHP syntax Script

This will produce following result −

My $variable will not print!\n

My name will print

There are no artificial limits on string length – within the bounds of available memory, you ought to be able to make arbitrarily long strings.

Strings that are delimited by double quotes (as in “this”) are preprocessed in both the following two ways by PHP −

  • Certain character sequences beginning with backslash (\) are replaced with special characters
  • Variable names (starting with $) are replaced with string representations of their values.

The escape-sequence replacements are −

  • \n is replaced by the newline character
  • \r is replaced by the carriage-return character
  • \t is replaced by the tab character
  • \$ is replaced by the dollar sign itself ($)
  • \” is replaced by a single double-quote (“)
  • \\ is replaced by a single backslash (\)

Here Document

You can assign multiple lines to a single string variable using here document −

Syntax

This will produce following result −

This uses the “here document” syntax to output

multiple lines with variable interpolation. Note

that the here document terminator must appear on a

line with just a semicolon. no extra whitespace!

<channel>

<title>What’s For Dinner<title>

<link>http://menu.example.com/<link>

<description>Choose what to eat tonight.</description>

Variable Scope

Scope can be defined as the range of availability a variable has to the program in which it is declared. PHP variables can be one of four scope types −

· Local variables

· Function parameters

· Global variables

· Static variables

Variable Naming

Rules for naming a variable is −

· Variable names must begin with a letter or underscore character.

· A variable name can consist of numbers, letters, underscores but you cannot use characters like + , – , % , ( , ) . & , etc

There is no size limit for variables.

Bukason

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